std::string::npos is implementation defined index that is always out of bounds of any std::string instance. Various std::string functions return it or accept it to signal beyond the end of the string situation. It is usually of some unsigned integer type and its value is usually std::numeric_limits::max which is (thanks to the standard integer promotions) . Apr 15, · The ATA had been amended in , which provided that if any members of a proscribed organization form a new organization under a different name.
Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. It's returned by method find when the pattern was not found. The document for string::npos says:. Various std::string functions return it what does the name asad mean accept it to signal beyond the end of the string situation. Because -1 is converted into an unsigned integral type, npos is the maximum unsigned value of its type.
Unfortunately, these maximum values what does the name asad mean. In fact, unsigned long -1 differs from unsigned short - 1 if the size of the types differs. Thus, the comparison. However, often you need the index of the matching character position. Thus, another simple solution is to define your own signed value for npos:.
Value of string::npos is Its a value returned if there is no string found. For Example. This value, when used as the value for a len or sublen parameter in string's member what is logistic growth rate, means "until the end of the string".
Stack Overflow for Teams — Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams? Learn more. What does string::npos mean in this code?
Ask Question. Asked what are sheaves of grain years, 7 months ago. Active 1 year ago. Viewed k times. What does the phrase std::string::npos mean in the following snippet of code? Improve this question. Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. It means not found. Improve this answer. Brian R. Bondy Brian R. Bondy k gold badges silver badges bronze badges.
Just wondering if anyone has come across this, or is it just me That doesn't seem right And I would recommend using npos, because I tried using -1 and it was not working properly under the conditions I was using it.
Sheldon L. Cooper Sheldon L. Cooper 2, 16 16 silver badges 13 13 bronze badges. It's so obvious you wouldn't think about it once you knew it, but for someone seeing those letters for the first time it may not click? As a return value it is usually used to indicate failure. Setting it to -1 makes it what is a color wheel the max val of that unsigned type.
Raghuram Raghuram 3, 2 2 gold badges 16 16 silver badges 24 24 bronze badges. Debashish Debashish 1, 13 13 silver badges 26 26 bronze badges.
Chubsdad Chubsdad 23k 4 4 gold badges 57 57 silver badges bronze badges. The actual value is implementation defined and irrelevant. This code will not wort for "asad. As a return value, it is usually used to indicate no matches. Leninkumar Leninkumar 1 1 silver badge 3 3 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.
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Bashar Hafez al-Assad was born in Damascus on 11 September , the second son and third child of Anisa Makhlouf and Hafez al-Assad. Al-Assad in Arabic means "the Lion". Assad's paternal grandfather, Ali Sulayman al-Assad, had managed to change his status from peasant to minor notable and, to reflect this, in he had changed the family name from Wahsh (meaning "Savage") to Al-Assad. 1.) Made the table name lower case - I know!! 2.) Used the specific quote symbol = `: It's the key above your TAB. The solution does sound absurd, but it worked and it's Saturday evening and I've been working since 9 a.m. - So I'll take it:) Good luck. First, we must understand that any Covid vaccine is not a cure, rather, its only improve ammune system and protect from getting virus. All approved vaccines need two doses to have full effect.
Bashar Hafez al-Assad [a] born 11 September is a Syrian politician who has been the 19th president of Syria since 17 July His father, Hafez al-Assad , was the president of Syria before him, serving from to Born and raised in Damascus , Bashar al-Assad graduated from the medical school of Damascus University in and began to work as a doctor in the Syrian Army.
Four years later, he attended postgraduate studies at the Western Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology. In , after his elder brother Bassel died in a car crash, Bashar was recalled to Syria to take over Bassel's role as heir apparent.
He entered the military academy, taking charge of the Syrian military presence in Lebanon in Political scientists have characterised the Assad family's rule of Syria as a personalist dictatorship. In the uncontested and non-democratic and elections , he received The Assad government describes itself as secular,  while some political scientists have claimed that the government exploits sectarian tensions in the country and relies upon the Alawite minority to remain in power.
Once seen by many states as a potential reformer, the United States , the European Union and the majority of the Arab League called for Assad's resignation from the presidency in after he ordered a violent crackdown on Arab Spring protesters, which led to the Syrian Civil War. Assad's paternal grandfather, Ali Sulayman al-Assad , had managed to change his status from peasant to minor notable and, to reflect this, in he had changed the family name from Wahsh meaning "Savage" to Al-Assad.
Assad's father, Hafez, was born to an impoverished rural family of Alawite background and rose through the Ba'ath Party ranks to take control of the Syrian branch of the Party in the Corrective Revolution , culminating in his rise to the Syrian presidency. The younger Assad had five siblings, three of whom are deceased. A sister named Bushra died in infancy. Unlike his brothers Bassel and Maher , and second sister, also named Bushra , Bashar was quiet, reserved and lacked interest in politics or the military.
In , Assad graduated from medical school and began working as an army doctor at the Tishrin Military Hospital on the outskirts of Damascus. Soon after the death of Bassel, Hafez al-Assad decided to make Bashar the new heir apparent. Preparations for a smooth transition were made on three levels. First, support was built up for Bashar in the military and security apparatus. Second, Bashar's image was established with the public.
And lastly, Bashar was familiarised with the mechanisms of running the country. To establish his credentials in the military, Bashar entered the military academy at Homs in and was propelled through the ranks to become a colonel of the elite Syrian Republican Guard in January In , Bashar took charge of Syria's Lebanon file , which had since the s been handled by Vice President Abdul Halim Khaddam , who had until then been a potential contender for president. Parallel to his military career, Bashar was engaged in public affairs.
He was granted wide powers and became head of the bureau to receive complaints and appeals of citizens, and led a campaign against corruption. As a result of this campaign, many of Bashar's potential rivals for president were put on trial for corruption. Member State of the Arab League Suspended. Asia portal History portal. The minimum age requirement for the presidency was lowered from 40 to 34, which was Bashar's age at the time.
Immediately after he took office, a reform movement made cautious advances during the Damascus Spring , which led to the shut down of Mezzeh prison and the declaration of a wide-ranging amnesty releasing hundreds of Muslim Brotherhood affiliated political prisoners. During the War on terror , Assad allied his country with the West. Syria was a major site of extraordinary rendition by the CIA of al-Qaeda suspects, who were interrogated in Syrian prisons. Soon after Assad assumed power, he "made Syria's link with Hezbollah — and its patrons in Tehran — the central component of his security doctrine",  and in his foreign policy, Assad is an outspoken critic of the United States, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.
In , Rafic Hariri , the former prime minister of Lebanon was assassinated. In the months leading to the assassination, relations between Hariri and Syrian President Bashar al-Assad plummeted amid an atmosphere of threats and intimidation. On 27 May , Assad was approved for another seven-year term in a referendum on his presidency, with Mass protests in Syria began on 26 January Protesters called for political reforms and the reinstatement of civil rights, as well as an end to the state of emergency which had been in place since The U.
On 20 June, in response to the demands of protesters and foreign pressure, Assad promised a national dialogue involving movement toward reform, new parliamentary elections , and greater freedoms.
He also urged refugees to return home from Turkey, while assuring them amnesty and blaming all unrest on a small number of saboteurs. In July , U. In August, the cartoonist Ali Farzat , a critic of Assad's government, was attacked. Relatives of the humourist told media outlets that the attackers threatened to break Farzat's bones as a warning for him to stop drawing cartoons of government officials, particularly Assad. Farzat was hospitalised with fractures in both hands and blunt force trauma to the head.
Since October , Russia, as a permanent member of the UN Security Council , repeatedly vetoed Western-sponsored draft resolutions in the UN Security Council that would have left open the possibility of UN sanctions, or even military intervention, against the Assad government. By the end of January , it was reported by Reuters that over 5, civilians and protesters including armed militants had been killed by the Syrian army, security agents and militia Shabiha , while 1, people had been killed by "terrorist armed forces".
On 10 January , Assad gave a speech in which he maintained the uprising was engineered by foreign countries and proclaimed that "victory [was] near". He also said that the Arab League , by suspending Syria, revealed that it was no longer Arab. However, Assad also said the country would not "close doors" to an Arab-brokered solution if "national sovereignty" was respected. He also said a referendum on a new constitution could be held in March. The referendum introduced a fourteen-year cumulative term limit for the president of Syria.
The referendum was pronounced meaningless by foreign nations including the U. On 15 July , the International Committee of the Red Cross declared Syria to be in a state of civil war,  as the nationwide death toll for all sides was reported to have neared 20, On 6 January , Assad, in his first major speech since June, said that the conflict in his country was due to "enemies" outside of Syria who would "go to Hell" and that they would "be taught a lesson".
However, he said that he was still open to a political solution saying that failed attempts at a solution "does not mean we are not interested in a political solution. After the fall of four military bases in September ,  which were the last government footholds in the Raqqa Governorate , Assad received significant criticism from his Alawite base of support. I think Damascus will collapse at some point. In , several members of the Assad family died in Latakia under unclear circumstances.
After a string of government defeats in northern and southern Syria, analysts noted growing government instability coupled with continued waning support for the Assad government among its core Alawite base of support,  and that there were increasing reports of Assad relatives, Alawites, and businessmen fleeing Damascus for Latakia and foreign countries.
In early September , against the backdrop of reports that Russia was deploying troops in Syria ready for combat, Russian President Vladimir Putin said that while such talk was "premature", Russia was "already providing Syria with sufficiently serious help: with both equipment and training soldiers, with our weapons".
In November , Assad reiterated that a diplomatic process to bring the country's civil war to an end could not begin while it was occupied by "terrorists", although it was considered by BBC News to be unclear whether he meant only ISIL or Western-supported rebels as well.
On 11 January , the senior Russian defense ministry official said that the "Russian air force was striking in support of eleven groups of democratic opposition that number over seven thousand people. On 22 January , the Financial Times , citing anonymous "senior western intelligence officials", claimed that Russian general Igor Sergun , the director of GRU , the Main Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation , had shortly before his sudden death on 3 January been sent to Damascus with a message from Vladimir Putin asking that President Assad step aside.
It was reported in December that Assad's forces had retaken half of rebel-held Aleppo , ending a 6-year stalemate in the city. On 30 August , the Hussein Arnous government was formed, which included a new Council of Ministers. Three years into a conflict that is estimated to have killed at least , people from both sides, much of the Syrian economy lies in ruins. As the violence has expanded and sanctions have been imposed, assets and infrastructure have been destroyed, economic output has fallen, and investors have fled the country.
Unemployment now exceeds 50 percent and half of the population lives below the poverty line This war economy — to which Western sanctions have inadvertently contributed — is creating incentives for some Syrians to prolong the conflict and making it harder to end it. A United Nations commissioned report by the Syrian Centre for Policy Research states that two-thirds of the Syrian population now lives in "extreme poverty".
Human Rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International , have detailed how the Assad government's secret police allegedly tortured, imprisoned, and killed political opponents, and those who speak out against the government. In , Syria banned face veils at universities. Foreign Policy magazine released an editorial on Assad's position in the wake of the protests: .
During its decades of rule In , Hafez al-Assad, Bashar's father, seized power after rising through the ranks of the Syrian armed forces, during which time he established a network of loyal Alawites by installing them in key posts.
In fact, the military, ruling elite, and ruthless secret police are so intertwined that it is now impossible to separate the Assad government from the security establishment In this respect, the situation in Syria is to a certain degree comparable to Saddam Hussein 's strong Sunni minority rule in Iraq. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that at least 10 European citizens were tortured by the Assad government while detained during the Syrian Civil War, potentially leaving Assad open to prosecution by individual European countries for war crimes.
In a February interview with the BBC , Assad described accusations that the Syrian Arab Air Force used barrel bombs as "childish", stating that his forces have never used these types of "barrel" bombs and responded with a joke about not using "cooking pots" either. Nadim Shehadi , the director of The Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies , stated that "In the early s, Saddam Hussein was massacring his people and we were worried about the weapons inspectors," and claimed that "Assad did that too.
He kept us busy with chemical weapons when he massacred his people. In September , France began an inquiry into Assad for crimes against humanity , with French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius stating "Faced with these crimes that offend the human conscience, this bureaucracy of horror, faced with this denial of the values of humanity, it is our responsibility to act against the impunity of the killers". In February , head of the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria, Paulo Pinheiro , told reporters: "The mass scale of deaths of detainees suggests that the government of Syria is responsible for acts that amount to extermination as a crime against humanity.
The report also stated: "There are reasonable grounds to believe that high-ranking officers—including the heads of branches and directorates—commanding these detention facilities, those in charge of the military police, as well as their civilian superiors, knew of the vast number of deaths occurring in detention facilities Chris Smith called on the Obama administration to create a war crimes tribunal to investigate and prosecute violations "whether committed by the officials of the Government of Syria or other parties to the civil war".
In April , there was a sarin chemical attack on Khan Sheikhoun that killed more than 80 people. In April , an alleged chemical attack occurred in Douma, prompting the U. Both Syria and Russia denied the involvement of the Syrian government at this time. In June , Germany's chief prosecutor issued an international arrest warrant for one of Assad's most senior military officials, Jamil Hassan.
Detention centers run by Air Force Intelligence are among the most notorious in Syria, and thousands are believed to have died because of torture or neglect. Charges filed against Hassan claim he had command responsibility over the facilities and therefore knew of the abuse.
The move against Hassan marked an important milestone of prosecutors trying to bring senior members of Assad's inner circle to trial for war crimes.
Assad opposed the invasion of Iraq despite a long-standing animosity between the Syrian and Iraqi governments. Assad used Syria's seat in one of the rotating positions on the United Nations Security Council to try to prevent the invasion of Iraq. According to veteran U. Despite the historical differences between the two Ba'ath factions, al-Douri reportedly urged Saddam to open oil pipelines with Syria, building a financial relationship with the Assad family.
After the Invasion of Iraq, al-Douri allegedly fled to Damascus where he organised the National Command of the Islamic Resistance which co-ordinated major combat operations during the Iraqi insurgency. S commander of the coalition forces in Iraq, George W.
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