Jupiter is the only planet whose barycentre with the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun, though by only 7% of the Sun's radius. The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is million km (about times the average distance between Earth and the Sun, or . Photography of Jupiter began in January , when images of the brightly banded planet already exceeded the best taken from Earth. Voyager 1 completed its Jupiter encounter in early April, after taking almost 19, pictures and many other scientific measurements. Voyager 2 picked up the baton in late April and its encounter continued into August.
The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft explored Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune before starting their journey toward interstellar space. Here you'll find how to see browsing history of those iconic images, including "The Pale Blue Dot" - famously described by Carl Sagan - and what are still the only up-close images of Uranus and Neptune.
Photography of Jupiter began in Januarywhen images of the brightly banded planet already exceeded the best taken from Earth. Voyager 1 completed its Jupiter encounter in early April, after taking almost 19, pictures and many other scientific measurements. Voyager 2 picked up the baton in late April and its encounter continued into August.
They took more than 33, pictures of Jupiter and its five major satellites. The Voyager 1 and 2 Saturn encounters occurred nine months apart, in November and August Voyager 1 is leaving the solar system. Voyager 2 completed its encounter with Uranus in January and with Neptune in Augustand what happened to the boogie man wwe now also en route out of the solar system.
At its closet, the spacecraft came within 81, kilometers 50, miles of Uranus's cloudtops on Jan. Voyager 2 radioed thousands of images and voluminous amounts of other scientific data on the planet, its moons, rings, atmosphere, interior and the magnetic environment surrounding Uranus. In the summer ofNASA's Voyager 2 became the first spacecraft to observe the planet Neptune, its final planetary target.
Passing about 4, kilometers 3, miles above Neptune's north pole, Voyager 2 made its closest approach to any planet since leaving Earth 12 years ago. Five hours later, How many miles from jupiter to the sun 2 passed about 40, kilometers 25, miles from Neptune's largest moon, Triton, the last solid body the spacecraft will have an opportunity to study.
This narrow-angle color image of the Earth, dubbed 'Pale Blue Dot', is a part of the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system taken by Voyager 1. The spacecraft acquired a total of 60 frames for a mosaic of the solar system from a distance of more than 4 billion miles from Earth and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic.
From Voyager's great distance Earth is a mere point of light, less than the size of a picture element even in the narrow-angle camera. Earth was a crescent only 0. Coincidentally, Earth lies right in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun.
This blown-up image of the Earth was taken through three color filters -- violet, blue and green -- and recombined to produce the color image. The background features in the image are artifacts resulting from the magnification.
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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but a little less than one-thousandth the mass of the Sun. Jupiter is the third-brightest natural object in the Earth 's night sky after the Moon and Venus. It has been observed since pre-historic times and is named after the Roman god Jupiter , the king of the gods, because of its massive size.
Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen , but helium comprises one quarter of its mass and one tenth of its volume. It likely has a rocky core of heavier elements,  but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. The on-going contraction of its interior generates heat greater than the amount received from the Sun. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid ; it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator.
The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, with turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result of this is the Great Red Spot , a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century, when it was first seen by telescope.
Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetic tail is nearly million km long, covering the entire distance to Saturn 's orbit. Jupiter has almost a hundred known moons and possibly many more,  including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in Ganymede , the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.
Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter, making its closest approach to the planet in December The latest probe to visit the planet, Juno , entered orbit around Jupiter in July Jupiter is most likely the oldest planet in the Solar System.
As a consequence, the core must have formed before the solar nebula began to dissipate after 10 million years. Formation models suggest Jupiter grew to 20 times the mass of the Earth in under a million years.
The orbiting mass created a gap in the disk, thereafter slowly increasing to 50 Earth masses in 3—4 million years. According to the " grand tack hypothesis ", Jupiter would have begun to form at a distance of roughly 3. As the young planet accreted mass, interaction with the gas disk orbiting the Sun and orbital resonances with Saturn  caused it to migrate inward. Saturn would later have begun to migrate inwards too, much faster than Jupiter, leading to the two planets becoming locked in a mean motion resonance at approximately 1.
This in turn would have changed the direction of migration, causing them to migrate away from the Sun and out of the inner system to their current locations. However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition.
Other models have Jupiter forming at distances much further out, such as 18 AU. Having formed at one of these extreme distances, Jupiter would then have migrated inwards to its current location. This inward migration would have occurred over a roughly , year time period,   during an epoch approximately 2—3 million years after the planet began to form.
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune would have formed even further out than Jupiter, and Saturn would also have migrated inwards. Jupiter is one of the four gas giants , being primarily composed of gas and liquid rather than solid matter. It is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a diameter of , km 88, mi at its equator. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane , water vapour , ammonia , and silicon -based compounds. There are also fractional amounts of carbon , ethane , hydrogen sulfide , neon , oxygen , phosphine , and sulfur.
The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.
This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. Based on spectroscopy , Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium and relatively more ices and are called ice giants. Jupiter's mass is 2. For example, the extrasolar planet HD b has a mass of 0. Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, it would shrink.
As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times more massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star , the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter. When the Juno mission arrived in July ,  it found that Jupiter has a very diffuse core that mixes into its mantle.
Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of hydrogen. At this depth, the pressure and temperature are above hydrogen's critical pressure of 1. It is convenient to treat hydrogen as gas extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1, km ,  and as liquid in deeper layers. Physically, there is no clear boundary—the gas smoothly becomes hotter and denser as depth increases. The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily inward, this is observed in microwave emission and required because the heat of formation can only escape by convection.
Jupiter has the deepest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System , spanning over 5, km 3, mi in altitude. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals, and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are in the tropopause and are in bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions.
These are subdivided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. The cloud layer is about 50 km 31 mi deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. Supporting the presence of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter.
These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. These are known as "elves" or "sprites" and appear blue or pink due to the hydrogen. The orange and brown colours in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change colour when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are thought to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.
The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallising ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view. Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles always receive less solar radiation than the planet's equatorial region. Convection within the interior of the planet transports energy to the poles, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.
It is known to have existed since at least ,  and possibly since The Great Red Spot is larger than the Earth. Initial observations in the late s showed it to be approximately 41, km 25, mi across. By the time of the Voyager flybys in , the storm had a length of 23, km 14, mi and a width of approximately 13, km 8, mi.
As of [update] , the storm was measured at approximately 16, by 10, km 10, by 6, mi ,  and was decreasing in length by about km mi per year. In , an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller.
This was created when smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in While this spot changes form and intensity over the short term, it has maintained its general position in the atmosphere for more than 15 years.
It may be a giant vortex similar to the Great Red Spot, and appears to be quasi-stable like the vortices in Earth's thermosphere. Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot.
Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times stronger than Earth's, ranging from 4. The volcanoes on the moon Io emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide , forming a gas torus along the moon's orbit. The gas is ionised in the magnetosphere , producing sulfur and oxygen ions. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane.
The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet, causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of a magnetodisk. Electrons within the plasma sheet generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0. At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause , located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath —a region between it and the bow shock.
The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn.
The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind. The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet.
As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism , and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. When Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output. This is approximately two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a near orbital resonance. Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0. The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small, only 3.
Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an amateur telescope. The planet is an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles.
On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9, km 5, mi longer than the polar diameter. Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three systems are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features.
System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m System III was defined by radio astronomers and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's official rotation.
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